Feed was selected by Publishers Weekly as one of their Best Books of McGuire was the inductee into the Darrell Awards Hall of Fame for her contributions to mid-south science fiction. SF Squeecast won its second Hugo in Blackout received a Hugo nomination for Best Novel. In addition. Mushroom A mushroom , or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The standard for the name "mushroom" is Agaricus bisporus. These gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface.
Forms deviating from the standard morphology have more specific names, such as " bolete ", " puffball ", " stinkhorn ", "morel", gilled mushrooms themselves are called " agarics " in reference to their similarity to Agaricus or their order Agaricales. By extension, the term "mushroom" can refer to either the entire fungus when in culture, the thallus of species forming the fruiting bodies called mushrooms, or the species itself.
Identifying mushrooms requires a basic understanding of their macroscopic structure. Most are gilled, their spores, called basidiospores, are produced on the gills and fall in a fine rain of powder from under the caps as a result. At the microscopic level, the basidiospores are shot off basidia and fall between the gills in the dead air space. As a result, for most mushrooms, if the cap is cut off and placed gill-side-down overnight, a powdery impression reflecting the shape of the gills is formed; the color of the powdery print, called a spore print , is used to help classify mushrooms and can help to identify them.
Spore print colors include white, black, purple-brown, pink and creamy, but never blue, green, or red. While modern identification of mushrooms is becoming molecular, the standard methods for identification are still used by most and have developed into a fine art harking back to medieval times and the Victorian era, combined with microscopic examination; the presence of juices upon breaking, bruising reactions, tastes, shades of color, habitat and season are all considered by both amateur and professional mycologists.
Tasting and smelling mushrooms carries its own hazards because of poisons and allergens. Chemical tests are used for some genera. In general, identification to genus can be accomplished in the field using a local mushroom guide. Identification to species, requires more effort.
However, over-mature specimens cease producing spores. Many novices have mistaken humid water marks on paper for white spore prints, or discolored paper from oozing liquids on lamella edges for colored spored prints. Typical mushrooms are the fruit bodies of members of the order Agaricales, whose type genus is Agaricus and type species is the field mushroom, Agaricus campestris.
However, in modern molecularly defined classifications, not all members of the order Agaricales produce mushroom fruit bodies, many other gilled fungi, collectively called mushrooms, occur in other orders of the class Agaricomycetes. For example, chanterelles are in the Cantharellales , false chanterelles such as Gomphus are in the Gomphales , milk-cap mushrooms and russulas, as well as Lentinellus , are in the Russulales , while the tough, leathery genera Lentinus and Panus are among the Polyporales , but Neolentinus is in the Gloeophyllales , the little pin-mushroom genus, along with similar genera, are in the Hymenochaetales.
Within the main body of mushrooms, in the Agaricales, are common fungi like the common fairy-ring mushroom, enoki, oyster mushrooms, fly agarics and other Amanitas, magic mushrooms like species of Psilocybe , paddy straw mushrooms, shaggy manes , etc. An atypical mushroom is the lobster mushroom, a deformed, cooked-lobster-colored parasitized fruitbody of a Russula or Lactarius and deformed by the mycoparasitic Ascomycete Hypomyces lactifluorum.
Other mushrooms are not gilled, so the term "mushroom" is loosely used, giving a full account of their classifications is difficult; some have pores underneath, others have spines, such as the hedgehog mushroom and other tooth fungi , so on. Thus, the term is more one of common application to macroscopic fungal fruiting bodies than one having precise taxonomic meaning. The terms "mushroom" and "toadstool" go back centuries and were never defined, nor was there consensus on application.
Between and AD, the terms mushrom, muscheron, mussheron, or musserouns were used.
The term "mushroom" and its variations may have been derived from the French word mousseron in reference to moss. Delineation between edible and poisonous fungi is not clear-cut, so a "mushroom" may be edible, poisonous, or unpalatable.
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Cultural or social phobias of mushrooms and fungi may be related; the term "fungophobia" was coined by William Delisle Hay of England , who noted a national superstition or fear of "toadstools". In German folklore and old fair. Celtic mythology Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism , the religion of the Iron Age Celts. Like other Iron Age Europeans, the early Celts maintained a polytheistic mythology and religious structure.
For Celts in close contact with Ancient Rome , such as the Gauls and Celtiberians , their mythology did not survive the Roman Empire , their subsequent conversion to Christianity and the loss of their Celtic languages, it is through contemporary Roman and Christian sources that their mythology has been preserved.
The Celtic peoples who maintained either political or linguistic identities left vestigial remnants of their ancestral mythologies that were put into written form during the Middle Ages. Although the Celtic world at its height covered much of western and central Europe , it was not politically unified nor was there any substantial central source of cultural influence or homogeneity. Inscriptions of more than three hundred deities equated with their Roman counterparts, have survived, but of these most appear to have been genii locorum , local or tribal gods, few were worshiped. However, from what has survived of Celtic mythology, it is possible to discern commonalities which hint at a more unified pantheon than is given credit.
The nature and functions of these ancient gods can be deduced from their names, the location of their inscriptions, their iconography , the Roman gods they are equated with, similar figures from bodies of Celtic mythology.
Celtic mythology is found in a number of distinct, if related, subgroups corresponding to the branches of the Celtic languages: Ancient Celtic religion mythology in Goidelic languages, represented chiefly by Irish mythology Mythological Cycle Ulster Cycle Fenian Cycle Cycles of the Kings mythology in Brittonic languages Welsh mythology Cornish mythology Breton mythology As a result of the scarcity of surviving materials bearing written Gaulish , it is surmised that the most of the Celtic writings were destroyed by the Romans, although a written form of Gaulish using Greek and North Italic alphabets was used.
Julius Caesar attests to the literacy of the Gauls, but wrote that their priests, the druids , were forbidden to use writing to record certain verses of religious significance while noting that the Helvetii had a written census. Rome introduced a more widespread habit of public inscriptions, broke the power of the druids in the areas it conquered. Although early Gaels in Ireland and parts of modern Wales used the Ogham script to record short inscriptions, more sophisticated literacy was not introduced to Celtic areas that had not been conquered by Rome until the advent of Christianity.
Indeed, many Gaelic myths were first recorded by Christian monks, albeit without most of their original religious meanings; the oldest body of myths stemming from the Heroic Age is found only from the early medieval period of Ireland.
As Christianity began to take over, the gods and goddesses were eliminated as such from the culture. The leader of the gods for the Irish pantheon appears to have been the Dagda. The Dagda was the figure on which male humans and other gods were based because he embodied ideal Irish traits.
Celtic gods were considered to be a clan due to their lack of specialization and unknown origins; the particular character of the Dagda was as a figure of burlesque lampoonery in Irish mythology, some authors conclude that he was trusted to be benevolent enough to tolerate jokes at his own expense. Irish tales depict the Dagda as a figure of power, armed with a club. In Dorset there is a famous outline of an ithyphallic giant known as the Cerne Abbas Giant with a club cut into the chalky soil.
While this was produced in modern times, it was long thought to be a representation of the Dagda; this has been called into question by recent studies which show that there may have been a representation of what looks like a large drapery hanging from the horizontal arm of the figure, leading to suspicion that this figure represents Hercules , with the skin of the Nemean lion over his arm and carrying the club he used to kill it.
In Gaul , it is speculated that the Dagda is associated with Sucellus , the striker , equipped with a hammer and cup. Dafydd ap Gwilym Dafydd ap Gwilym is regarded as one of the leading Welsh poets and amongst the great poets of Europe in the Middle Ages. Tradition has it that he was born at Penrhyn-coch , Ceredigion , his father, Gwilym Gam, mother, were both from noble families.
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As one of noble birth it seems Dafydd did not belong to the guild of professional poets in medieval Wales, yet the poetic tradition had been strong in his family for generations. According to R. Geraint Gruffydd he died in a possible victim of the Black Death. Tradition says that he was buried within the precinct of the Cistercian Strata Florida Abbey , Ceredigion; this burial location is disputed by supporters of the Talley Abbey theory who contend that burial took place in the Talley Abbey Churchyard: On Saturday 15 September a memorial stone was unveiled by a Prifardd to mark the site in the churchyard at Talley where a deeply-rooted tradition asserts that the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym lies buried.
The first recorded observation that Dafydd ap Gwilym was buried in Talley was made in the sixteenth century. Talley is located about 30 miles from Strata Florida, it is believed that about one hundred and seventy of his poems have survived, though many others have been attributed to him over the centuries.
He was an innovative poet, responsible for popularising the metre known as the " cywydd " and first to use it for praise, but his greatest innovation was to make himself the main focus of his poetry. By its nature, most of the work of the traditional Welsh court poets kept their own personalities far from their poetry, the primary purpose of, to sing the praises of their patrons.
Dafydd's work. In contrast, is full of his own feelings and experiences, he is a key figure in this transition from a social poetic tradition into one in which the poet's own vision and art is given precedence. Although Dafydd wrote comparatively conventional praise poetry, he wrote love poetry and poetry expressing a personal wonderment at nature.
His popularity during his own historic period is testified by the fact that so many of his poems were selected for preservation in texts, despite a short career compared to some of his contemporaries. Many of his poems are addressed to women, but to two of them and Dyddgu, his best-known works include the following poems: Morfudd fel yr haul, a poem to the wife of an Aberystwyth merchant who seems to have had a long affair with Dafydd, whom he addressed in many poems. Until not included in Dafydd's canon for reasons of editorial squeamishness. This would be Dafydd's dream-vision poem'Y Breuddwyd'.
An introduction in English.
Helen Fulton, Dafydd ap Gwilym and the European context. English translations. Thomas Parry , Gwaith Dafydd ap Gwilym.
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